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Queen Of Heaven - Orthodox and Catholic idolatrous title of Mary the Mother of Jesus.


Radical orthodoxy : a movement perhaps founded by John Milbank that melds philosophy with Orthodoxy to the point of self imploding irony in that is methodology and conclusions unveil the similarities between pagan religions and Orthodoxy. 

Raskol Schism: In Eastern Orthodox church history especially within Russian Orthodox Church, the Old Believers or Old Ritualists (Russian: старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern OrthodoxChristians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666. Resisting the accommodation of Russian piety to the contemporary forms of Greek Orthodox worship, these Christians were anathematized, together with their ritual, in a Synod of 1666–1667, producing a division in Eastern Europe between the Old Believers and those who followed the state church in its condemnation of the Old Rite.

Russian speakers refer to the schism itself as raskol (Russian: раскол), etymologically indicating a "cleaving-apart".

Reader. (Gr. Anagnostis, Sl. Chtets). The individual assigned to read, chant, and give responses in church services. Usually, such a person will be blessed by the bishop with special prayers and in a special ceremony.


Recapitulation theology: the theory of the atonement is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ. some say first expounded clearly by which was first clearly formulated by Irenaeus of Lyons.. 

The Eastern Orthodox Church holds to the heresy termed the Recapitulation Theory.

that is.... through the Incarnation,

Christ took on human nature, becoming the Second Adam,

and entered into every stage of humanity, from infancy to adulthood, uniting it to God.  He then suffered death to enter Hades and destroy it.  After three days, He resurrected and completed

His task by destroying death.


By entering each of these stages and remaining perfectly obedient to the Father, Christ recapitulated every aspect of human nature. 

He said “Yes” where Adam said “No”

and healed what Adam’s actions had damaged. 

This enables all of those who are willing to say yes to God to be perfectly united with the Holy Trinity.

Relics. (Gr. Leipsana Agia). The remains from the body of a Saint or even a Saint's possessions, such as clothes or vestments. The relics are honoured and venerated by all Orthodox. Upon the consecration of a new church, the consecrating bishop embeds holy relics in the Altar Table, following the ancient traditions of the church in performing the Eucharist on the tombs of Martyrs (Martyria).

reliquary theca (thecae): A container for holy relics. such as limbs of saints, fingers, and perhaps high relief carvings (?).


Renunciation of Errors: The confirmation service of a new adult convert to Eastern  Orthodox has "the renunciation" ceremony in it. where the new proselyte must renounce in public the Reformation and the Protestant / Evangelical gospel as false. A diabolical heresy from Hell itself.


Repose: The day when a particular saint fell asleep in the Lord. Generally, this refers to a saint who died a natural death as opposed 0 25 martyrdom.

Rite. (Gr. Telete, Sl. Tchin). The performance of a religious ceremony following a prescribed order of words and actions (typikon).

The Rite of Mutual Forgiveness. a form of general confession, (or manifest contrition), It involves an exchange between the priest and the congregation (or, in monasteries, between the superior and the brotherhood). The priest will make a prostration before all and ask their forgiveness for sins committed in act, word, deed, and thought. Those present ask that God may forgive him, and then they in turn all prostrate themselves and ask the priest's forgiveness. 

ROCOR - The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, also until 2007 part of True Orthodoxy's Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA,


Rosary: seldom used by Orthodox, but see prayer rope.


Ruah: A word that means both Spirit and breath; a name for the third person of the trinity.

Rubrics: (Catholic). forms, directions, and rituals that guide a church service.

Rudder. (Gr. Pedalion). The book containing the rules and regulations prescribed by the Ecumenical Synods and the Fathers. It is the Constitution of the Orthodox Church.

The rule of faith (Latin: regula fidei) a phrase exposing the Orthodox tendency to verify their stances from creeds (that are not fit for purpose)  and not the bible.


Sacerdotalism ; the heresy of salvation through the sacraments, that is administered through priestcraft, in an ongoing "process of salvation" via priests and bishops, especially the eucharist, baptism (triple in the case of Orthodoxy), chrismation and confession. It is arguable whether penance is included here as it is both an issue of "works salvation" and "priestcraft salvation" in that it is also administered through priests. 

Sacrament. (Gr. Mysterion; Sl. Tainstvo). The outward and visible part of religion, consisting of various ceremonies, words, and symbolisms, producing an invisible action by the Holy Spirit that confers grace on an individual. All Sacraments were instituted by Christ for the salvation of the believer.


Sacred Orders. 

1) bishops,

2) priests  

3) deacons

see holy orders.

Sacrifice. (Gr. Thysia; Sl. Zhertva). The bloodless offering to God, which is the Holy Eucharist offered at the Liturgy. It signifies the sacrifice of Christ on the cross for man's salvation. Also, refer to the article on the Dogmatic Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Saints. (Gr. Agios). All holy men, women, and angels, who, through a pure and holy life on earth or through martyrdom and confession of faith in word and deeds, have merited the canonization of the Church. The saints and the other pious people who are in glory with God constitute the "Triumphant Church." See the article on Saints in the Orthodox Church. .

Sanctifying Grace: (Catholic) too many contradictory definitions to quote. often having a strange mix of contradictory theologies such as having a Calvinistic spin on it (entirely opposite to their own stance on free will). A very cunning and deceptive area of Catholic theology often a involving complete cauldron of inbuilt rhetorical contradictions. .

Saving Sacraments: Four of the sacraments are described as "the saving sacraments"  

1) Triple baptism

2) Chrismation

3) Confession to a priest

4) The Eucharist.


Scarlet and purple heresy: the doctrine that the "scarlet and purple" of Revelation 17 represents the melding or symphonia of religious and secular power, started in the reign of Constantine (the first pseudo Christian Emperor) and carried forward by Justinian when canon law came to be enforced by the emperor. see Oikoumene, and Symphonia  / Constantinianization / Constantinian shift. /  Edict of Thessalonica . 

Schism. Formal separation from the unity of the one true Church. Although the Christian Church has witnessed several schisms, the most disastrous was the separation of the Greek Eastern and the Roman Western Church in 1054, dividing Christendom into two parts .


Scoba.  The Standing Conference of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas. A council of the primates of the canonical Orthodox jurisdictions in North and South America.


Scoba, sponsors cooperation and common programs between the various Orthodox jurisdictions in such areas as Christian education and campus ministry. Member jurisdictions are:

1) The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America (under Constantinople),

2) The Orthodox Church in America (Formerly the Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church in North America now autocephalous,

3) The Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America (under Antioch),

4) The Serbian Eastern Orthodox Diocese - for, the US and Canada (under Serbia),

5) The Romanian Orthodox Missionary Archdiocese in America (under Romania),

6) The Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church (under Bulgaria),

7) The Albanian Orthodox Diocese of America (under Constantinople),

8) The Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church (under Constantinople),

9) The Ukranian Orthodox Church in America (under Constantinople).


Sobornost. (Slavonic - Councilliar)

1) The form of government in the 21 Orthodox Church by which the Church is governed by councils.

2) The idea found in the writings of the nineteenth century Russian theologian Aleksi Khomiakov, that the Holy Spirit preserves the unity and faith in the Church through the life in Christ shared by all members, lay and clerical. Thus dogmatic decisions, such as those of the Ecumenical Councils  are regarded as infallible because the Holy Spirit has guided the Faithful to recognize them as correct expressions of the true faith. Therefore no Council or Bishop possesses infallibility, because infallibility is expressed by the common faith of all the Faithful under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.

Seal of Confession: (Catholic). The absolute confidentiality required of a priest regarding sins revealed in confession.

See. (Gr. Hedra or Thronos). The official "seat" or city capital where a bishop resides (esp. for a large jurisdiction); hence, the territory of his entire jurisdiction may be called his See.

Sedevacantism: is the position, held by some traditionalist Catholics, that the present occupier of the Holy See is not truly pope due to the mainstream church's espousal of the heresy of modernism and that, for lack of a valid pope, the see has been vacant since the death of Pope Pius XII in 1958.

Semi-Pelagianism. perhaps the best western theological term that expresses the Eastern Orthodox Churches view on the nature of human free will, in combination with "ancestral sin", versus the human nature of free will  in combination with "original sin" as expressed in the most common Evangelical and Protestant belief called Arminianism.

There are 3 views of mans corrupt state:
1) Calvinism = man is totally depraved (heresy)
2) Evangelical & Protestant Arminianism = man is depraved, but not totally, he can accept the gospel by free will, BUT he cannpt take the first steps toward God himself, and only under God's drawing power can he be saved. (true = moderate)
3) Eastern Orthodox = ancestral sin has a less corrupted concept of mans nature than Arminianism (based on original sin instead). Thus quote
denoting the doctrine that the first steps towards good can be taken by the human will, though supervening divine grace is needed for salvation. It was (questionably) attributed to John Cassian (d.435),


Septuagint, Septuaginta or LXX: the Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament.

Sergianism: On July 16/29, 1927, the deputy of the locum tenens of Russian patriarchal throne, Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky), issued his infamous Declaration', in which he more or less unconditionally placed the Russian Church in submission to the communist atheists,


Seven Deadly Sins (or Capital Sins): (Catholic) Pride, Lust, Greed, Gluttony, Envy, Sloth, Wrath.

Sign of the Cross. The Orthodox make the Sign of the Cross to signify their belief in the sacrifice of Christ upon the cross for man's salvation. It is made by the right hand in a cruciform gesture touching the forehead, chest, right and left shoulders with the tips of fingers (the thumb, index, and middle finger joined together as a symbol of the Holy Trinity, the ring and little fingers touching the palm as a symbol of the two Natures of Christ) from right to left.

A new hand gesture was introduced into Russia which you could be killed or imprisoned for if you contradicted it and opposed it along with other trivial changes, The reforms were by Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666. After 1685= you could be executed.

The Catholics make the sign with all digests of the hand from left to right spookily forming a number 6.

 The five open fingers are often said to represent the Five Wounds of Christ.

3) Sign of the cross prayer / ritual / benediction / trinitarian formula: the following words are said "In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, Amen." and as this is said, before, or after, the sign of the cross is made in a very distinct fashion, on the body or in the air, in Orthodoxy two fingers should meet the thumb to do this sign, probably representing the Trinity.

This is blasphemy because the Eastern Orthodox clergy are using the name (singular) of the three persons of the Holy Trinity (especially controversial is the use of the name of the Holy Spirit) as a false sign of their piety before they preach total and utter heresy in sermons, performing this ritualistic benediction first without a proper care for the gravity of their offence. 

Simplification: Is a very interesting subject general rather than Orthodox, as it can be linked to stripping down your beliefs near death to core centre ones, which some might say increases the chances of last minute repentance by ditching pride fuelled heresy. In Orthodoxy their blasphemous Liturgies are almost always included in their more official definitions, rather than a person's own evaluation of core centre faith / religion / salvation issues. 

Society of Saint Pius X. (SSPX or the FSSPX): is an international priestly fraternity founded in 1970 by the French Roman Catholic Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre. The Society is known for rejecting many of the ecclesiastical reforms both influenced or institutionalized by the Second Vatican Council while maintaining Traditional Latin Mass among its followers. The present Superior General of the Society is Bishop Bernard Fellay.

Soteriology: is the study of religious doctrines of salvation.


Spiritual guide. the person whom one confesses sins before on a regular basis, usually a priest or a starets.


Spiritual Platonism:  The Byzantine approach to theology is hypothesized to be primarily influenced by a spiritual platonism that considers the world as an epiphany or appearance of a superior world. 

Spiritual relationship. (see affinity).  


Starets / startsy - A spiritual adviser, often a monk or religious hermit, in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Some claim to give prophecy, but this seldom seems to affect their title as far as I know. 

Statues: statue idols are more rare in Orthodoxy than in Roman Catholicism, that is full 3D images not relief or high relief. Examples are:

1) The Good Shepherd, 3rd century from the catacombs;

2) Mary and the Child Jesus, 10th century Contantinople;

3) Our Lady of Monserrat, Spain, 12th century.

Stavropegion. Monastery or monastic community directly under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

strannik or stranniki: (wanderer, or pilgrim), Rasputin was called this.

Stoglav:  a church code promulgated in the Tsardom of Russia in 1551.


Substance: a non biblical theology word when used in relation to God's inner being, that is the cause of much controversy but is from the outset non specific, as it sounds like a spiritualisation of something physical.

Subdeacon. (Gr. hypodiakonos). A layman who has received a special blessing by the bishop to serve in the church, assisting in the services and ceremonies.

sui iuris churches:

suffragan bishops : Catholic - is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop (Bishop Ordinary) and, consequently, is not normally jurisdictional in their role. Suffragan Bishops may be charged by a Metropolitan to oversee a suffragan diocese. They may be assigned to an area which does not have a cathedral of its own. Bishops who assist diocesan bishops are usually called auxiliary bishops. If the assisting bishop has special faculties (typically the right to succeed the diocesan bishop) he would be called a coadjutor bishop.[17] Since they are not in charge of a suffragan diocese, they are not referred to as "suffragan bishops".


Supererogation. the performance of more work than duty requires. 


works of supererogation. (specifically in the Roman Catholic religion) actions believed to form a reserve fund of merit that can be drawn on by prayer in favour of sinners. This was turned into "The Pope's power of the keys" in which he could supposedly drawn upon works of supererogation by saints and Mary to use them to release souls from Purgatory for the price of indulgences, bringing about the saying: "The moment the coin goes into the coffer the soul leaps out of Purgatory."  

Symphonia: that church and state are to complement each other, exhibiting mutual respect with neither institution presuming to dominate the other. The theory is believed to have been first fully embodied in the Byzantine Empire from the time of Justinian's reign, when ecclesiastical and civil law were indivisible, that is, canon law came to be enforced by the emperor. It was reasserted in the Stoglav, a church code promulgated in the Tsardom of Russia in 1551. see Scarlet and Purple heresy / Oikoumene / Constantinianization / Constantinian shift.

Synaxarion: In the Orthodox Church, the nearest equivalent to the Roman Catholic martyrology is the Synaxarion and the longer Menologion.

  1. A brief biography of a saint read in the church on occasions of his feast day.

  2. Book or books containing lives of the saints.


Synaxis. (Gr. "assembly"; Sl. Sobor). A gathering of the faithful in honor of a saint or for reading passages from his biography (synaxarion).


Synergismos: Working with. To be distinguished between the warped way in which Calvinism uses the words Synergism and Monergism, and that in Eastern Orthodoxy salvation is a synergy between God and man.s works, an heretical concept see Rom 11:6 and Eph 2:8-9.


Synergy. (Greek - Cooperation) The Orthodox concept that salvation is a result of cooperation between the believer and God. Although salvation is a free gift from God, the believer must respond by Faith, reception of the Sacraments, virtuous living, prayer, fasting and other 22 ascetical exercises that lead to spiritual growth

See also the article on:

note: this definition by Orthodoxy is oxymoronic concerning salvation. Works must be considered a fruit of salvation, not a root of salvation. Good to see though the open declaration of their "process of salvation" is best termed a synergy as then at least their falsity is clear,

Synod. (see Ecumenical Council).


Tabernacle. (Gr. Artophorion; Sl. Darochranitelnitsa). An elaborate ark or receptacle kept on the Altar Table, in which the Holy Gifts of the Eucharist are preserved for the communion of the sick or for the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts during Lent.


Theologoumena: / a theologoumenon  : a theological statement or concept in the area of individual opinion rather than of authoritative doctrine.  a theological opinion. The Orthodox Church in America defines theologoumena as acceptably orthodox "theological opinions" that can develop into "pious traditions", but which nevertheless can be erroneous or imperfect.[8] A more comprehensive Orthodox definition is often given as "the theological opinion of one or many of the holy fathers of the undivided Church .

One example is whether the bread turns into Christs body alone, or his body and blood. Get to know this word. It is the great "get out clause" for Orthodoxy versus Catholic clear doctrine, and helps the Orthodox to "mystify" their way out of contradictions in their faith.

Thaumatourgos. (Gr. "miracle-worker"; Sl. Chudotvorets). A title given to some saints distinguished among the faithful for their miracles.


Theanthropos: God-Man. Jesus is both God and Man.


Thelesis. the human will of Christ in the  Monothelitism or monotheletism debate. who deny His human will (Thelesis), accepting thereby only his Divine. Specifically,

theodicy / theodicean: the vindication of divine providence in view of the existence of evil. the question of theodicy.. eg. Irenaeus' Theodicy .

Theologoumeno. (Greek - The opinion of theologians) The opinions of the Fathers and contemporary theologians may differ on matters not defined as dogma by the Church.

Theoria. ('illumination' with the 'vision' of God). Part of the path to or process of theosis. 

Theosis: or deification, union with the energies of God, but not his essence, is a transformative process whose aim is likeness to or union with God, as taught by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches. As a process of transformation, theosis is brought about by the effects of catharsis (purification of mind and body) and theoria ('illumination' with the 'vision' of God). According to Eastern Christian  teaching, theosis is very much the purpose of human life. It is considered achievable only through a synergy (or cooperation) between human activity and God's uncreated energies (or operations).

One definition is "Theosis. Deification or Salvation." In other words the final state of salvation is shown in deification. Such vanity.

There is no "spiritual equivalent" in the theological terminology of western bible scholars, however it is partially best expressed as what is definitely an heresy "the process of sanctification saves".

Theotokos: God-bearer.  A theological term commonly used by the Orthodox to indicate the doctrinal significance of Virgin Mary as Mother of God. It is said in Orthodoxy Protestants sometimes use the term Christotokos (I have never heard them do this), bearer of Christ, but some Orthodox believers see this somehow as a pedantic attack on one person of Christ with two natures. 

Virgin Mary or Theotokos prayer: (the 7 Abominations to Mary)

1) Supplication (the action of asking or begging humbly)

2) Blessing.

3) Adoration (worship)

4) Petition (an appeal or request to a deity or a superior)

5) Intercession. 

6) Thanksgiving.

7) Praise.

Theurgy : the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action or evoking the presence of one or more deities, especially with the goal of achieving henosis (uniting with the divine) and perfecting oneself, something which witchcraft and Orthodoxy have eery similarities in. 

Thomism / Thomistic: noun [ mass noun ]

he theological and philosophical system of Thomas Aquinas or of his followers.

Three hierarchs. The Orthodox Church considers in particular three bishops (hierarchs) of the Church as Her most important Teachers and Fathers, who contributed to the development and the spiritual growth of the Church. They are St. Basil the Great, St. Gregory the Theologian, and St. John Chrysostom. Their feast day is observed on January 30, a day also dedicated to Hellenic letters since the three hierarchs contributed to the development of Greek Christian education and literature.


Three Petrine Sees : Three jurisdictions (Rome, Antioch and Alexandria) supposedly seen by Saint Peter as sees he was in authority over.

Titular bishop. An auxiliary bishop without his own territorial or residential diocese, who is usually assisting a senior bishop with a large jurisdiction (Archbishop or Patriarch). The episcopal title of a titular bishop is taken from an ancient diocese which once flourished but now exists only in name, and, therefore, a titular bishop does not have his own jurisdiction.


Toll Houses (Aerial) - supposedly described in Ephesians 6:12-13, It holds that "following a person's death the soul leaves the body, and is escorted to Godby angels. During this journey the soul passes through an aerial realm, which is inhabited by wicked spirits  The soul encounters these demons at various points referred to as toll-houses where the demons then attempt to accuse it of sin and, if possible, drag the soul into hell."[1]

Tradition, Orthodox. (Gr. Paradosis). The transmission of the doctrine or the customs of the Orthodox Church through the centuries, basically by word of mouth from generation to generation.

Transfiguration. (Gr. Metamorphosis). The transfiguration of Christ is a major feast day (August 6) commemorating the appearance of Christ in divine glory along with Moses and the prophet Elias on Mount Tabor (cf. Matt. 17: 1-7).


Transignification: (in the Eucharist) a change in the significance of the bread and wine to symbolize the body and blood of Christ. A new doctrinal u-turn or step back by Romanism, as the doctrine of transubstantiation falls apart in the light of modern science and scientific analysis.


Trinity (the Trinity or the Holy Trinity) the three persons of the Christian Godhead; Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Part of the claim to authority of Orthodoxy is its claim to be able to always make decisions correctly on subjects such as

homoiousios,  homoousia,  consubstantiality  hypostases,  the eikon , etc, but Theosis is in fact a direct attack on the Trinity, and their doctrine breaking God apart into ousia and energia is heresy.

The Trinitarian formula - is the phrase "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (original Greek εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος, eis to onoma tou Patros kai tou Yiou kai tou Agiou Pneumatos, or in Latin in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti), or words to that form and effect, referring to the three persons of the Christian Trinity. It is often followed by an "Amen".

It is usually coupled with a sign of the cross hand movement, a new hand gesture was introduced into Russia which you could be killed or imprisoned for , if you contradicted it and opposed it, The reforms were by Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666. After 1685= you could be executed.

Triodion. (Gr. "three odes or modes").

  1. The period between the Sunday of the Pharisee and the Publican, and Cheese-Fare Sunday.

  2. A Liturgical book containing the hymns, prayers, and services of the movable feast before Easter, beginning with the Sunday of the Pharisee and the Publican and lasting until Easter Sunday.

  3. Trisagion. (Gr. "thrice-holy").

  4. One of the most ancient hymns of the church, used by the Orthodox in every prayer or service: "Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy upon us."

  5. Memorial Service performed by the graveside or in church for the repose of the soul.

Typikon. (Gr. "following the order"; Sl. Sluzhebnik). Liturgical book which contains instructions about the order of the various church services and ceremonies in the form of a perpetual calendar.

Typology - types pre-figuring or superseded by antitypes, in relation between old and new testaments, but in Orthodoxy they fancifully cherry pick parts of the old law such as issues with beards and incense censors, and imagine they should have near identical literal equivalents now.


Unleavened bread. Used in the eucharist in Latin (Western) churches.

Unction. (see Chrism).

Uniats. (see Byzantine Rite).


Valentinianism: taught that Holy Spirit deposited the Christ Child in her womb and that Mary was the a surrogate mother, but not truly Christ’s genetic mother. Valentinian the Gnostic (d. 160) taught that the Son of God passed through Mary like water through a straw. The Apostle Paul writes, “God sent His Son, made of a woman.”

(see also: Collyridianism, Ebionism, Helvidianism, Nestorianism,)

Vespers. (Gr. Esperinos; Sl. Litiya). An important service of the Orthodox Church, held in the evening, which is mainly a Thanksgiving prayer for the closing day and a welcome of the new one to come the following morning. On the eve of an important holiday, the Vesper Service includes Artoclasia or the blessing of the five loaves (Gr. artos; Sl. Litiya) for health and the well-being of the faithful.

Vigil. (Gr. olonychtia). Spiritual exercises during the night preceding the feast day of a saint or another major feast, observed by various spiritual preparations, prayers, and services.


Western Rite Orthodoxy. or Western Orthodoxy or Orthodox Western Rite are terms used to describe congregations that are within Churches of Orthodox tradition but which use liturgies of Western or Latin origin rather than adopting Eastern liturgies such as the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom. While there are some ancient examples of Western Rite communities in areas predominantly using the Byzantine Rite before the Great Schism was fully consolidated (the Monastery of Saint Mary of the Latins, often referred to as Amalfi, is a common example), the history of the movement is often considered to begin in the nineteenth century with the life and work of Julian Joseph Overbeck.

Windows to heaven: icons, really idols masquerading the idolatry by calling Jesus a living icon, in theory justifying icons.



Year of the Church. (see calendar).



appr. = approximately
Ar. = Arabic
Aram. = Aramaic
cf. = see, check
esp. = especially
fem. = feminine n. = neuter

Gr. = Greek
Hebr. = Hebrew

Lat. = Latin
masc. = masculine
Sl. = Slavonic

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