The Orthodox Church in America

           a Puppet of Russia.

Post-reconciliation schism:

Critics of the reunification argue that "the hierarchy in Moscow still has not properly addressed the issue of KGB infiltration of the church hierarchy during the Soviet period."

( so.... you are potentially confessing

your sins to the KGB / FSB or FSS in America,

as Russian rules over the USA church jurisdiction in Orthodoxy!!)

Founded in 1794 — Granted Autocephaly in 1970 by Russia  -  denied autocephaly by the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

see Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia [c]

© 2023 by Skyline

CHURCH FATHERS Until John of Damascus :

 

Adrian the monk of Antioch wrote a manual on the Antiochene method of Scriptural exegesis[1]

 

Alexander of Alexandria[2]326 

 

Alexander of Lycopolis4th century 

 

Ambrose of Milan397one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church; strongly opposed Arianism

 

Amphilochius of Iconium[1][2]403 or earlier 

 

Ananias of Shirak[2][3]7th centurywrote a work on Christmas and one on Easter

 

Anastasius Sinaita[1][2]7th century 

 

Andrew of Caesarea[1]6th centurycommented on the Apocalypse

 

Andrew of Crete[2]8th centuryauthor of the 250-strophe Great Canon

 

Anthony the Great[1]356 

 

Aphraates367Mesopotamian bishop who authored 23 homilies[1]

 

Apollinaris of Hirapolis2nd century 

 

Apollinaris of Laodicea390 

 

Apollonius of Ephesus210 

 

Apringius of Beja6th centurycommented on the Apocalypse[4]

Archelaus supposedly a bishop of Carchar who wrote against Manichaeism

 

Aristides the Athenian[1][2]134 

 

Aristo of Pella[1]2nd century 

 

Arnobius[1]330author of Against the Heathen

 

Arsenius the Great445 

 

Asterius of Amasea[2]405wrote sermons on morality including topics like divorce and covetousness, and the parables of Jesus Christ

 

Athanasius373one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church

 

Athenagoras of Athens[1]190wrote in defense of the resurrection of the dead[2]

 

Atticus[1]420s 

 

Augustine of Hippo430one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church (Doctor Gratiae)

 

Aurelius Prudentius[1][2]early 5th centurycommented on the Psalms[5]

 

Ausonius395 

 

Avitus of Vienne[1]523author of the five-book poem De spiritualis historiae gestis; converted King

Sigismund; combated Arianism

 

Barnabas[2]061 

 

Barsanuphius of Palestine540 

 

Basil the Great of Caesarea379one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church and one of the Three Holy Hierarchs; father of monachism

 

Bede[1]735Doctor of the Church and author of Ecclesiastical History of the English People

 

Benedict of Nursia[1][2]547best known for the Rule of St Benedict

 

Boethius[2]520sauthor of Consolation of Philosophy

 

Braulio of Zaragoza651commented on the Psalms[5]

 

Caesarius of Arles[1]542commented on the Apocalypse

 

Caius3rd century 

 

Cassiodorus[1][2]585 

 

Chromatius[2]407wrote sermons on the Gospel of Matthew

 

Clement of Alexandria210s 

 

99 AD - Clement of Rome

1 Epistle of Clement -

2 Epistle of Clement -

1 Epistle on Virginity - how can they be 99AD if they contain the chapter/verse numerals only added 

quote "The chapter divisions commonly used today were developed by Stephen Langton, an Archbishop of Canterbury. Langton put the modern chapter divisions into place in around A.D. 1227. The Wycliffe English Bible of 1382 was the first Bible to use this chapter pattern. "

2 Epistle on Virginity - Two "Epistles on Virginity" were traditionally attributed to Clement, but now there exists almost universal consensus that Clement was not the author of those two epistles.[25] so in that case that proves "church tradition" fallible.

The False Decretals - A 9th-century collection of church legislation known as the False Decretals, which was once attributed to Saint Isidore of Seville, is largely composed of forgeries. All of what it presents as letters of pre-Nicene popes, beginning with Clement, are forgeries, as are some of the documents that it attributes to councils;[26] and more than forty falsifications are found in the decretals that it gives as those of post-Nicene popes from Pope Sylvester I (314–335) to Pope Gregory II (715–731). The False Decretals were part of a series of falsifications of past legislation by a party in the Carolingian Empire whose principal aim was to free the church and the bishops from interference by the state and the metropolitan archbishops respectively.[27][28][29]

Main article: Pseudo-Isidore

quote "Clement is included among other early Christian popes as authors of the Pseudo-Isidoran (or False) Decretals, a 9th-century forgery. These decrees and letters portray even the early popes as claiming absolute and universal authority.[30] Clement is the earliest pope to whom a text is attributed." In other words.... they are forgeries designed to falsify that early Popes claimed the false authority as present ones, AND their false church structure of so called authority...

quote

""These early documents were designed to show that by the oldest traditions and practice of the Church no bishop might be deposed, no Church councils might be convened, and no major issue might be decided, without the consent of the pope. Even the early pontiffs, by these evidences, had claimed absolute and universal authority as vicars of Christ on Earth." Durant, Will. The Age of Faith. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972. p. 525"

Coelius Sedulius[1]5th century 

 

Columba of Iona[1][2]597 

 

Commodianus3rd century 

 

Cyprian of Carthage[1]258 

 

Cyril of Alexandria444Doctor of the Church (Doctor Incarnationis) combated the Nestorianheresy

 

Cyril of Jerusalem386Doctor of the Church who wrote thorough instructions to catechumens and baptized Christians[1]

 

Didymus the Blind[1]398teacher of Jerome and Rufinus; follower of Origen; opponent of Arianism and the Macedonian heresy; works condemned at the Fifth Ecumenical Council and the Sixth Ecumenical Council

 

Diodore of Tarsus[1]390 

 

Dionysius of Corinth[1]2nd century 

 

Dionysius the Areopagite1st centuryWritings attributed to him are thought to have been faked by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite.

 

Ephrem the Syrian373Doctor of the Church

 

Epiphanius of Salamis403friend of Jerome who strongly opposed Origenism and wrote a history of heresies

 

Eucherius of Lyon[1][2]449 

 

Eugippius[3]6th century 

 

Eusebius of Caesarea339 

 

Eusebius of Emesa360commented on Genesis[6]

 

Eusebius of Vercelli[1]371 

 

Firmilian[1]269 

 

Fulgentius of Ruspe6th century 

 

Gaius Marius Victorinus4th centurycombated Arianism[1]

 

Gennadius of Massilia[1]496 

 

Gregory of Nazianzus389one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church; one of three Orthodoxsaints honored with the title "The Theologian;" one of the Three Holy Hierarchs

 

Gregory of Nyssa394 

 

Gregory of Tours[2]594 

 

Gregory Thaumaturgus270 

 

Hegesippus of Palestine[1]180a Jewish convert who combated Gnosticism and Marcionism

 

Hermias[2]3rd century 

 

Hesychius of Jerusalem5th century 

 

Hilary of Poitiers367Doctor of the Church

 

Hippolytus of Rome[1][2]235 

 

Ignatius of Antioch107 

 

Irenaeusend of 2nd or beginning of 3rd century 

 

Isaac of Nineveh700ascetic author of many spiritual homilies who commented on the Psalms[5] and contributed significantly to Syrian piety; was not Christologically Nestorian[7]

 

Isidore of Pelusium449author of 2000 letters dealing primarily with allegorical exegesis[1]

 

Isidore of Seville[1][2]636Doctor of the Church

 

Jacob of Serugh[3][5][8]521a.k.a. Mar Jacob

 

Jerome420one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church

 

John Cassian[1][8]435 

 

John Chrysostom407one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church and one of the Three

Holy Hierarchs

 

John Climacus[8]606 

 

John of Damascus749Doctor of the Church and author of An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith and ascetic and exegetical writings and hymns; Peter Lombardbased his Four Books of Sentences on the works of John of Damascus and Thomas Aquinas based his Summa

Theologica on Peter Lombard's Sentences

 

Julianus Pomerius[1]5th centuryauthor of De Vita Contemplativaconcerning Christian sanctity

 

Julius Firmicus Maternus4th century 

 

Justin Martyr165 

 

Juvencus[1]4th century 

 

Lactantius320 

 

Leontius of Byzantium[1]543 

 

Lucian of Antioch[1]312 

 

Lucifer[1]370combated Arianism and defended Athanasius at the Council of Milan in 354

 

Macarius of Alexandria[8]395 

 

Macarius of Egypt[8]391 

 

Malchion3rd century?played key role in the deposition of Paul of Samosata

 

Marcus Minucius Felix[1][8]250author of Octavianus

 

Marius Mercator451made a compilation on Nestorianismand another on Pelagianism[1]

 

Martin of Bruga4th centurycommented on the Psalms[5]

 

Martin of Tours[8]397 

 

Mathetes2nd century?author of an Epistle to Diognetus

 

Maximus of Turin[1]465 

 

Maximus the Confessor[1][8]662 

 

Meletius of Antioch[8]381 

 

Melito of Sardis180author of an important sermon called On Pascha about the Resurrection of Jesus Christ

 

Methodius of Olympus[1][8]311combated Origenism

 

Moses of Chorene490author of A History of Armenia

 

Nectarius of Constantinople[8]398 

 

Nicetas of Remesiana414the patron saint of Romania commented on the Psalms[5]

 

Nilus of Sinai430 

 

Nonnus5th century 

 

Novatian[1]258commented on the Psalms[5]

 

Oecumenius6th centuryauthor of the first extant Greekcommentary on the Apocalypse[4]

 

Optatus4th centurycombated Donatism[1]

 

Origen of Alexandria254posthumously anathematized at Fifth Ecumenical Council (533)

 

Orosius[1]420 

 

Pachomius[1][8]348Father of Christian cenobitic monasticism

 

Pacian of Barcelona[8]391combated Novatianism

 

Palladius of Helenopolis[1][8]5th century 

 

Pamphilus of Caesarea309 

 

Pantamus214first to make the Catechetical school of Alexandria famous[1]

 

Papias[8]155disciple of John the Evangelist and Ariston[1]

 

Patrick[8]5th century 

 

Paulinus of Nola[8]431 

 

Peter Chrysologus450Doctor of the Church

 

Philip the priest commented on the Book of Job

 

Philoxenus of Hierapolis[3]6th centuryauthor of 13 ascetic discourses who

combated NestorianismManichaeism, and Marcionism

 

Poemen450commented on the Psalms[5]

 

Polycarp155 

 

Pope Damasus I384 

 

Pope Dionysius of Rome[1]268combated Sabellianism

 

Pope Dionysius the Great of Alexandria265 

 

Pope Gregory I the Great604one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church and author of Dialogues

 

Pope Leo I the Great461Doctor of the Church

 

Pope Peter of Alexandria311 

 

Pope Zephyrinus217commented on the Psalms

 

Proclus of Constantinople440s 

 

Prohaeresius[1]367 

 

Prosper of Aquitaine[1]455 

 

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite6th centuryauthor of The Divine Names, The Mystical Theology, The Celestial Hierarchy, The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, and the non-extant Theological Outlines; quoted extensively in the Summa Theologicaof Thomas Aquinas

 

Quadratus of Athens[1]129wrote a non-extant apology to Emperor Hadrian

 

Rabbula[3][9]435ascetic and energetic bishop of Edessa and ally of Cyril of Alexandria who opposed the heretical teachings of Nestorius

 

Romanos the Melodist[9]556

 

Sahdona649commented on the Psalms[5]

 

Salvian[1][9]490sGallic author of On the government of God

 

Severian of Gabala408commented on Genesis[6] and the First and Second Epistle to the Corinthians

 

Severus of Antioch[3][9]538 

 

Sextus Julius Africanus[1][8]240 

 

Sidonius Apollinaris[1][9]489 

 

Socrates of Constantinople5th century 

 

Sophronius[9]638 

 

Sozomen450 

 

Sulpicius Severus[9]425disciple and biographer of Martin of Tours and author of an Ecclesiastical History[1]

 

Synesius of Syrene[1][9]414 

 

Tatian185 

 

Tertullian222died a Montanist

 

Theodore of Mopsuestia[1]428commented on Acts of the Apostlesand the First and Second

Epistle to the Corinthians

 

Theodoret of Cyrus457continuator of Eusebius of Caesarea[1]

 

Theodotus of Ancyra4th century 

 

Theophilus of Antioch[1]180sfirst writer known to have used the term Trinity to describe the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit

 

Theotimos407 

 

Tichonius390commented on the Apocalypse; his seven principles of interpretation from his Book of Rules inspired Augustine of Hippo [4]

 

Tyrannius Rufinus410friend of Jerome and continuator of Eusebius of Caesarea[1] who commented on the Psalms[5]

 

Valerian of Cimiez460commented on the Psalms[5]

 

Venantius Fortunatus7th centurywrote a poem on Easter

 

Victor of Antioch commented on the Gospel of Mark[1]

 

Victorinus of Pettau303author of On the Creation of the Worldand a Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John

 

Vincent of Lérins450 

 

Zeno of Verona

finger-pointing-left16.gif

EASTERN ORTHODOX THEOLOGISTS

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This (complex) page is under construction......

Early Church Fathers .

What you will eventually see from Orthodoxy is the devil's tactic (used in the Talmud) of confusing you with so many writings by so many people to study that you are distracted from the Word of God, that is declared infallible. The vile notion of Orthodoxy and Catholicism is that the "Laity" need to check out so many writers. theologists, and lives of saints to verify they are on the right path eternal life become for intellectuals only, but the Protestant and Evangelical (that is real Christians) view is that the gospel that saves is simple and is therefore for all, and needs no complex explanation, or to wait in line in a catechumen queue to be verified for eternal life by a cigarette smoking whisky drinking fake priest, directing you to read 500 history books.

as claimed by the Orthodox as Orthodox or "Apostolic Catholic" who were often no such thing. What the Orthodox fail to grasp is there were plenty of named heretic cults in the new testament itself, including the Judaisers, the Antinomianists, and the Nicolaitans (them) and that some early teachers were in fact the seed sowers of the "Higher than the laity" heresy of Nicolaitan Sacerdotalism.

(under construction)

1st Century :

all churches include the following:

11 of the 12 Disciple :​

This is where the deception begins!!! The "laity" is tricked into accepting all sorts of legends, tales and traditional stories and "add-ons" about the 12 Disciples, paving the way to later invent the almost 100% fiction life stories of the early fake bishops in the line of "apostolic succession" in the 2nd and 3rd Centuries, thus "proving" a line of decent. The forgery of junk history actually involves also falsifying Luke making the first icon, and other disciples writing and using liturgies.

John

Peter
James
Andrew
Bartholomew or Nathanael
James, the Younger (or Lesser)
(Judas) x
Jude or Thaddeus or Lebbeus (a man of 3 names)
Matthew or Levi
Philip
Simon the Zealot
Thomas

New Testament authors :

Matthew

Mark

Luke

John

James

Paul

Jude

Peter

(Book of Hebrews - no agreement or certainty on author)

Apostles mentioned in scripture .

 

if we discount Judas

The 12 Apostles = Jesus (Hebrews 3:1) and the 11 Apostles.

plus

 

1) Paul - Acts 14:14

2) James, the half brother of Jesus - Galatians 1:19

3) Barnabas - Acts 14:14

4) Apollos - Corinthians 4:6-9

5) Timothy - I Thessalonians 1:1 and 2:6

6) Silvanus - I Thessalonians 1:1 and 2:6

 

7) Epaphroditus? Philippians 2:25.  

8) Anonymous apostle  1? - 2 Corinthians 8:23. 

9) Anonymous Apostle 2? - 2 Corinthians 8:23.

10) Andronicus? - Romans 16:7

11) Junia? - Romans 16:7.   Of great controversy and debate as this gives a female Apostle, the highest position of authority on the list of ministries (Eph 4:11) when normally in both the Protestant, Catholic and all forms of Orthodoxy women are not Pastor type figures, though the Orthodox do have kinds of female ministries, as do some Protestant churches.

If we discount Epaphroditus, two anonymous, Andronicus and Junia. then that is 12 + 6 = 18 proven new testament Apostles, "The 17 Apostles" being the others beside Jesus . 

 

Easter Orthodox add their fictitious "70 Apostles" .

(the scripture "other 70" Luke 10:1 are not at the high status of apostles, or doubtless they would be given by name,  but simply appointed helpers in Evangelism.)

The reason for the "70 Apostles" deception is that Eastern Orthodoxy is based on an heretical concept of not leaving the old law quote "done away" but in a form of semi-Judaising heresy to cherry pick old testament law, practices and traditions and add them to new testament law, creating their own potpourri or syncretic new religion, that is actually witchcraft (as is explain in Galatians "Who has bewitched you?" and Revelation "For by thy sorceries were all nations deceived"). In order to do this an imitation of the heretical religion of modern Judaism was necessary, where the 70 elders are supposed to have the same power to give law as Moses did, and so to reinforce their deception they create a fictitious list of other Apostles to have the number 70 available to compare with the 70 Elders of the Sanhedrin of the old testament.

2nd Century :

include the collection known as the Apostolic Fathers (mostly 2nd century)

 

Justin Martyr (c. 100/114–c. 162/168)

Clement of Alexandria (died c. 215)

Irenaeus of Lyons (c. 130–202)

 

 

'Gnostic' authors .  (obviously rejected by Orthodoxy)

Marcion (c. 85-c. 160),

Valentinius (c. 100–c. 153) 

Basilides (c. 117–138)

 

 

Some of the texts commonly referred to as the New Testament apocrypha.

Influential texts and writers between c. 200 and 325 (the First Council of Nicaea) include:

 

Tertullian (c. 155–230)

Hippolytus (died 235)

Origen (c. 182–c. 251)

Cyprian (died c. 258)

Arius (256–336)

 

 

Other Gnostic texts and texts from the New Testament apocrypha.

 

First Council of Nicaea .

Nicene Creed .

Main article: Nicene Creed

Each phrase in the Nicene Creed, which was hammered out at the Council of Nicaea, addresses some aspect that had been under passionate discussion and closes the books on the argument, with the weight of the agreement of the over 300 bishops in attendance. [Constantine had invited all 1800 bishops of the Christian church (about 1000 in the east and 800 in the west). The number of participating bishops cannot be accurately stated; Socrates Scholasticus and Epiphanius of Salamis counted 318; Eusebius of Caesarea, only 250.] In spite of the agreement reached at the council of 325 the Arians who had been defeated dominated most of the church for the greater part of the 4th century, often with the aid of Roman emperors who favored them.

 

 

Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers .

Influential texts and writers between AD 325 and c. 500 include:

 

Athanasius (298–373)

The Cappadocian Fathers (late 4th century)

Ambrose (c. 340–397)

Jerome (c. 347–420)

Chrysostom (347–407)

Augustine of Hippo (354–430)

Cyril of Alexandria (376–444)

 

Ecumenical Councils .

Nicaea in 325 ,

Constantinople in 381 ,

Ephesus in 431 .

Chalcedon in 451 .

 

 

Papacy and primacy .

The forgery of the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals had a massive effect on history, fooling millions (even after being discredited) into thinking the Early Church accepted Peter as the Rock of the church, when in Greek Peter calls Jesus the Christ, and Jesus replies "You are a stone, and on this Rock (the Christ) I will build my church.

Early heresies .

The Judaizers

Nicolaitans (the Orthodox and Roman Catholics)

Balaam

(expand)

 

Medieval Christian theology .

Byzantine theology .

While the Western Roman Empire declined and fell, the Eastern Roman Empire, centred on Constantinople, remained standing until 1453, and was the home of a wide range of theological activity that was seen as standing in strong continuity with the theology of the Patristic period; indeed the division between Patristic and Byzantine theology would not be recognised by many Orthodox theologians and historians.

Gregory Palamas

 

 

Mystical theology .

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (working c. 500)

Symeon the New Theologian (949–1022)

Gregory Palamas (1296–1359)

 

Council of Chalcedon .

Christological controversy after Chalcedon .

Severus of Antioch (c. 465–518)

Leontius of Jerusalem (working 538–544)

Maximus the Confessor (c. 580–682)

John of Damascus

Iconoclasts and iconophiles .

Patriarch Germanus I of Constantinople (patriarch 715–730)

John of Damascus (676–749)

Theodore the Studite (c. 758–c. 826)

 

 

Heresies .

Adoptionism

Antinomianism

Apollinarism

Arianism

Arminianism

Audianism

Bogomils

Bosnian Church

Catharism

Docetism

Donatism

Ebionites

Euchites

Free Spirit

Gnosticism

Henry the Monk

Iconoclasm

Jansenism

Luciferianism

Lollardy

Mandaeism

Manichaeism

Marcionism

Monarchianism

Monophysitism

Monothelitism

Montanism

Muhammadism (Islam)

Neo-ultramontanism

Nestorianism

Ophites

Patripassianism

Paulicianism

Pelagianism

Peter of Bruis

Phyletism

Priscillianism

Psilanthropism

Sabellianism

Semi-pelagianism in Roman Catholicism (Orthodox is semi-Pelagian)

Socinianism

Ultramontanism in Orthodoxy

Waldensians

 

 

Western theology .

Before the Carolingian Empire .

Caesarius of Arles (c. 468–542)

Boethius (480–524)

Cassiodorus (c. 480–c. 585)

Pope Gregory I (c. 540–604)

Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636)

Bede (672–736)

 

 

Theology in the time of Charlemagne .

Alcuin (c. 735–804)

The Spanish Adoptionists Felix of Urgel and Elipandus of Toledo (late 8th century)

Rabanus Maurus (c. 780–856)

Radbertus (c. 790–865)

Ratramnus (died c. 868)

Hincmar (806–882)

Gottschalk (c. 808–c. 867)

Johannes Scotus Eriugena (c. 815–877)

 

 

Before Scholasticism .

Heiric of Auxerre (c. 835–887)

Remigius of Auxerre (c. 841–908)

Gerbert of Aurillac (c. 950–1003)

Fulbert of Chartres (died 1028)

SCHISM OF 1054 .

Berengar of Tours (c. 999–1088)

Lanfranc (died 1089)

 

Scholasticism .

Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means "that [which] belongs to the school", and was a method of learning taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities c. 1100–1500. Scholasticism originally began to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology. It is not a philosophy or theology in itself, but a tool and method for learning which puts emphasis on dialectical reasoning. The primary purpose of scholasticism was to find the answer to a question or resolve a contradiction. It is best known in its application in medieval theology, but was eventually applied to classical philosophy and many other fields of study.

 

 

Early scholasticism and its contemporaries .

Anselm of Canterbury (1033/1034–1109)

Anselm of Laon (died 1117)

Hugh of St Victor (1078–1151)

Peter Abelard (1079–1142)

Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153)

Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179)

Peter Lombard (c. 1100–1160)

Joachim of Fiore (c. 1135–1202)

 

 

High Scholasticism and its contemporaries .

Saint Dominic (1170–1221)

Robert Grosseteste (c. 1175–1253)

Francis of Assisi (1182–1226)

Alexander of Hales (died 1245)

Mechthild of Magdeburg (1210–1285)

Roger Bacon (1214–1294)

Bonaventure (1221–1274)

Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274)

Angela of Foligno (1248–1309)

of interest to Protestants

Late Scholasticism and its contemporaries .

Scholastic theology continued to develop as the 13th century gave way to the fourteenth, becoming ever more complex and subtle in its distinctions and arguments. The 14th century saw in particular the rise to dominance of the nominalist or voluntarist theologies of men like William of Ockham. The 14th century was also a time in which movements of widely varying character worked for the reform of the institutional church, such as conciliarismLollardy and the Hussites. Spiritual movements such as the Devotio Moderna also flourished.  Catherine of Siena .

Notable authors include:

       

sources 1) wiki - History of Christian Theology .

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Christian_theology#Medieval_Christian_theology

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