The Orthodox Church in America

           a Puppet of Russia.

Post-reconciliation schism:

Critics of the reunification argue that "the hierarchy in Moscow still has not properly addressed the issue of KGB infiltration of the church hierarchy during the Soviet period."

( so.... you are potentially confessing

your sins to the KGB / FSB or FSS in America,

as Russian rules over the USA church jurisdiction in Orthodoxy!!)

Founded in 1794 — Granted Autocephaly in 1970 by Russia  -  denied autocephaly by the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

see Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia [c]

© 2023 by Skyline

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The History of Killing 3

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11th century:  (1001 AD to 1100 AD) .

1001-1031 - Spanish "Christian" / Muslim war .

1004 –​ Battle of Skopje .

1009 – Battle of Kreta .

 

1014 – Battle of Thessalonica .

1014 – Battle of Kleidion .

1014 – Battle of Strumica .

10:15 - 1016 - King Cnut invades and conquers England . (he had two wives thus pretended to be converted for political reasons? Or was given in effect an heretical exemption?)

​1015 – Battle of Bitola - Byzantine vs Bulgarian war

​1017 – Battle of Setina

 

Norman conquest of southern Italy .

1018 –  Battle of Dyrrhachium

1018 –  Battle of Cannae

 

1021 – Battle of Shirimni .

1022 – Battle of Svindax .

1024 – Battle of Lemnos  (Rus'–Byzantine War (1024).

1027 - Council of 1027 – banning warfare on certain holy days.

1030 – Battle of Azaz .

1030 - The Battle of Stiklestad. 

1031 - Edessa, 1031,

1038 - Rometta, 

 

1040 - 1185 - A number of wars between the Normans and the Byzantine Empire.  

1040 - Battle of Thessalonica

​1041 – Battle of Ostrovo

1041 – Battle of Olivento

1041 – Battle of Montemaggiore

1041 – Battle of Montepeloso

1041 - Monte Siricolo,

 

1043 – Rus' raid into the Aegean Sea.   (Rus'–Byzantine War (1043) 

1043 ??? - Ostrovo, 

1047 - Constantinople, 

1047 – Battle of Sasireti

1048 – Battle of Kapetron

1053 - Civitate & Norman Conquest of Italy  .

 

1054 - THE GREAT SCHISM OF 1054: so up until this point the Roman Catholics And Eastern Orthodox are (loosely) supposed to have been "one church" doing all their war and butchery together. 

important note:

The Visigoth were often Arian Christians until (supposedly) 587
as were the Ostrogoth later supposedly absorbed by the Lombards. The
Vandals were also often Arian Christians until the Byzantines reconquered in 533. Saxons convert to the sacerdotalist heresy in the mid 600’s, conquered by Charlemagne and William the conqueror.

 

The Celtic had a unique form of the Faith. The Franks are often said to convert with Clovis in 496 however he is also said to be Arian by some, becoming the dominant Germanic power,  later usurped by the Holy Roman Empire and with Charlemagne. So this idea of a world united under one consistent form of Christianity is not true, and was far more complex. It is the contention of Catholicism and Orthodoxy no one on Earth accepted Jesus as only Saviour without the involvement of the priestcraft heresy up until the Reformation, 

note also:

The Orthodox will often criticize Catholic Germans by saying they adopted religio-political and magico-religious elements of Germanic religiosity, and even blood feuds. to "accommodate into Christianity" not convert, but will not accept they themselves fit that exact same profile except they accommodated and were compromised by Eastern elements of false religion, like imitating long haired gurus with long haired priests, replacing meditation with the hesychasm, and shrines of multiple idol gods turned into icons and prayers to multiple saints.

******

THE GREAT SCHISM OF 1054: so up until this point the Roman Catholics And Eastern Orthodox are (loosely, remember!) supposed to have been "one church" doing all their war and butchery together. 

1054 – (1st) Battle of Manzikert:  - a successful defense of the city of Manzikert by Byzantine forces under Basil Apocapes against the Seljuk Turks led by sultan Toğrül

1057 - Hades, 

1061 - Robert Guiscard invaded Sicily with his brother Roger, capturing Messina in 1061 - One of many clashes with the Byzantines after the Great Schism.

1066 - The Battle of Hastings:

QUOTE: "Bishop Odo of Bayeux, William's (the Bastard or Conquerer) half-brother and second in command. fought in the Battle of Hastings using a mace in order to prevent the spilling of Christian blood."

 

​1067 – Battle of Caesarea

1068 – 1071 – Siege of Bari

1069 – Battle of Iconium

1070 - Battle of Sebastia, Manuel Komnenos defeated and captured at Sebastia by a Turkish force led by Arisiaghi .

 

1071 – (2nd) Battle of Manzikert:  was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey). A decisive defeat of the Byzantine army. it is said this led to the First Crusade later.

1077 - Nicaea, 

1078 (9?) – Battle of Kalavrye .

1081 – Battle of Dyrrhachium .

 

1081 - Battle of Dyrrhachium . 

1081 - 1185 : The Komnenian restoration. the military, financial, and territorial recovery of the Byzantine Empire.

1084 - Larissa,

1090 - the Battle of Tébar - El Cid (several battles by him), with a combined Christian and Moorish army, defeated and captured Berenguer  (nowadays Pinar de Tévar, near Monroyo, Teruel). 

1091 – Battle of Levounion.

 

1095–1099 - First Crusade:  (begins)

1096 - April–October - The People's Crusade : Peter the Hermit leads common people and knights to attack the Holy Land, On the way they murdered many Jews in Europe, then in Hungary they plundered cities and King Koloman fought them.

The Battle of Civetot - On Arriving in the Holy Land they where they were quickly crushed by the Sejuk Turks killing about 20,000 of them. 

1095–1099 - First Crusade

Battle cry "Deus vult" (Latin for "God wills it")  at the declaration of the First Crusade by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095 

Pope Urban Preaches The First Crusade (1095) In response to requests from the Byzantine Empire for mercenaries to help them fight the Sejuk Turks, who had overrun the heart of Asia Minor and taken much of the Holy Land in the decades after defeating the Byzantines at Manzikert in 1071, Pope Urban II (1088–1099) called for an armed pilgrimage to Jerusalem to free the Holy Land from the hands of the Saracens.

It has been suggested this Crusade by Catholics and Orthodox, was a covert and cunning attempt by Pope Urban to reunite both religions back into one, and perhaps seeing this the Orthodox only help to start the crusade more than help finish it.

Peter the Hermit returns joining the Princes Crusade beginning the First Crusade proper.

 

Western Leaders in First Crusade

1) Raymond IV of Toulouse,  (the knights of Provence)

2) Bohemond of Taranto & Tancred, (Normans of southern Italy)

3) The brothers Godfrey of Bouillon, Eustace and Baldwin of Boulogne (The Lorrainers)

4) The Northern French led by Count Robert II of Flanders, Robert of Normandy (older brother of King William II of England), Stephen, Count of Blois, and Hugh of Vermandois the younger brother of King Philip I of France, who bore the papal banner. King Philip himself was forbidden from participating in the campaign as he had been excommunicated.

(all were offered remission of sins by the Pope for going to war).

Eastern Leaders in First Crusade:

1) Alexios I Komnenos

2) Tatikios

3) Manuel Boutoumites

4) Constantine of Armenia

Notice this is after the 1054 schism where they both together are still united in killing, murdering and destroying. Alexios forced the crusader armies from Europe to pledge all future reclaimed land back to the Eastern Empire (him) as they arrived one army at a time and were vulnerable to this "persuasion". 

1097 – Siege of Nicaea , Alexios provides troops in the attack. Byzantine ships block harbour, city surrenders to Byzantine sailors. Alexios wont let in Crusaders, gives gift to buy their contentment.

 

1097 -. Battle of Dorylaeum

1097 - Siege of Antioch

 

1099 - Jerusalem Massacre.

  • Establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

  • Battle of Ascalon

12th century:  (1101 AD to 1200 AD) .

THE DARK AGES END :

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period begin, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 and lasted until around 1300.

​1101-1200 - with the popularity of the Cathars. Inquisition and death sentences  become more common.

1101 - Crusade of 1101: called: "The Crusade of the Faint-Hearted" was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade.   

1101 - Post-Crusade of 1101:

 

1106 - The Battle of Tinchebray.

1107-1110 - Norwegian Crusade. in the aftermath of the First Crusade, by the lead of the Norwegian king Sigurd I. Sigurd 1st was the first European king to ever go on crusade to the Holy Land, for which sin he must answer to God. Essentially it was yet another Viking murderous rampage dressed up as Christian. Not one battle during the crusade was lost.

1113 – Siege of Nicaea

1117 – Battle of Philomelion.

 

1119 - Creation of the Knights Templar.  active until about 1312.

1122 – Battle of Beroia  (Byzantine)  EmperorJohn II Komnenos really was quite a blood thirsty Byzantine Emperor.

1122–24 - The Venetian Crusade.

1135 and 1153 - The Anarchy was a civil war in England and Normandy 

1138 – Siege of Shaizar .

1144 - The Siege of Edessa.  the catalyst for the Second Crusade.     

1145–1149 - The Second Crusade

including the

1147 - Wendish Crusade (part of the 2nd Crusade).

1147 - 2nd Battle of Dorylaeum.  

Post-Second Crusade:

Armenian Principality

1155 - Apulia, 

1156 - Brindisi, 

   

1163–1169 - Crusader invasions of Egypt:

1167 – Battle of Sirmium .

1176 – Battle of Myriokephalon .

1172 - 1212 - Spanish Christian / Muslim War .

1177 – Battle of Hyelion and Leimocheir

1182  :  The Massacre of the Latins : was a massacre of the Catholic (called "Latin") inhabitants of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, by the Orthodox, called by the Orthodox "an assorted mob" (the supporters of the usurper (matter of perspective)  Andronikos Komnenos) in April 1182. This may have been fuelled by

1)  The Great Schism

2)  several past battles with catholic invaders, such as Robert Guiscard invasion of Sicily,

3) The First Crusaders breaking the agreement to give conquered land over to the Byzantines.

4) The failure of the second crusade, making the Latins just look like dispensable failures and now thus cultural / religious invaders.

1184 - Arnoldists condemned - by  Pope Lucius III  Synod of Verona in .[3]

1184 - Inquisition in  Languedoc (south of France.)

Episcopal Inquisition (1184–1230s)

​​​1185 – Sack of Thessalonica

​​​1185 –Battle of Demetritzes

 

1187 - Saladin reconquered Jerusalem from the "Christians" in 1187, 

​​1187 – Siege of Lovech

​1187 - Constantinople,

 

1190 - Tryavna, 

1191 - Morava, 

1189–1192 - The Third Crusade :

 

Kingdom of Cilicia

​1190 – Battle of Tryavna

1191: Arsuf (1191) Richard the Lion Heart defeats Saladin at Arsuf.

1194 – Battle of Arcadiopolis

1196 – Battle of Serres

1197 - Crusade of 1197: called "The German Crusade" or "The Crusade of Henry VI" was a crusade launched by the Hohenstaufen Emperor Henry VI in response to the aborted attempt of his father, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa during the Third Crusade in 1189–90. Thus the military campaign is also known as "The Emperor's Crusade."

1198-1212 - War against Livonians. 

13th century:  (1201 AD to 1300 AD) .

1200 - After 1200, a Grand Inquisitor headed each Inquisition. Grand Inquisitions persisted until the mid 19th century!!!

1201-1290 - Wars against Curonians and Semigallians.

1201 – Siege of Varna

1202–1204The Fourth Crusade

Eastern Christian opponents:

  • Byzantine Empire

 

Latin Christian opponents:

  • Kingdom of Hungary

  • Kingdom of Croatia

  • Alexios III Angelos

  • Alexios V Doukas

1203 – Siege of Constantinople – First attack on Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade, deposition of Alexios III Angelos

 

1204 – Siege of Constantinople – Second attack and capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade, dissolution of the Byzantine Empire, establishment of the Latin Empire. In short instead of going on a quest to "save Jerusalem" the crusaders decided to sack Constantinople. A major event in history, and perhaps revenge for "the massacre of the Latins" in 1182?

1205 – Battle of the Olive Grove of Kountouras

1205 – Battle of Adramyttium

​​1205-1427 - Byzantine–Latin wars: (many battles)

1205–06 – Siege of Trebizond.

1206-1261 - Wars against Saaremaa. 

1206 1324 - Mongol Wars and Conquests.

in his reign from Spring 1206 – August 18, 1227 - Genghis Khan is estimated to have killed 40 million people!!!. (about 10% of the Earth's population at that time) and 1,748,000 in one hour! People fleeing from the Mongols into other countries were forced to "convert" to so called Christianity by the Catholics and Orthodox, such as King Bela IVth and were also often made to join the army.

1207 – Siege of Attalia.

1208-1224 - War against the Estonians .   

1208-1224 - War against Latgallians and Selonians.

    

1209–1229 - The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade:  was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France

1211 – Battle of Antioch on the Meander

1211 – Battle of the Rhyndacus

1212 - The Children's Crusade: (there are said to have been more than one of these tragic crusades.)

1214 – Siege of Sinope

 

​1217–1221 - The Fifth Crusade: (1213?)

1222–23 – Siege of Trebizond

​1223 or 1224 – Battle of Poimanenon

1223 - The Battle of Kalka River (Mongols defeat Russians)

1224 - Thessalonica, 

 

1227–1241 - Pope Gregory IX  assigned the duty of carrying out inquisitions to the Dominican Order and Franciscan Order. 

He dedicated himself to the destruction of splinter groups who divorced themselves from the Holy Mother Church. This epoch in Roman Catholic history spanned over six centuries. They suppressing, burning at the stake, torturing, expulsion, life imprisonment, and excommunication of heretics: Waldensians, Petrobusians, Berengarians, Cathars, Bogomils, etc.

1228–1229 - The Sixth Crusade: started by Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II. instead of a Pope, for the first time.

1229 - The Inquisition was permanently established, run largely by the Dominicans in Rome and later at Carcassonne in Languedoc. called The Papal Inquisition (1230s).

1230-1248 - Spanish Christian / Muslim war.

1230 – Battle of Klokotnitsa – Bulgarians defeat and capture Theodore Komnenos Doukas .

1233 - War against the Stedingers of Friesland.

1235 – Siege of Constantinople – Unsuccessful joint Bulgarian–Nicaean siege of Constantinople.

1237 - Mongol Raids on Russia

 

1239 - The Barons' Crusade: broadly spanned from 1234-1241.

1242 - Battle of the Ice - Alexander Nevsky defeats Teutonic Knights

1241 -   Battle of Mohi   The Mongols invaded Hungary and annihilated Béla's so called "Christian" army.

1246 - Battle of Leitha River:

1248 – 1254 - The Seventh Crusade:

1252 - "Ad extirpanda" (the Papal bull) of Pope Innocent IV, the rules allowing torture in the Inquisition.

1249 - Rhodes, 

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period begins. was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500.

 

1253 - Russia lives under the Tatar Yoke. 

1254 – Battle of Adrianople .

1256 - from this date inquisitors were given absolution if they used instruments of torture.

1259 – Battle of Pelagonia

1260 – Siege of Constantinople

1260 - Battle of Ain Jalut - Muslim Mamluks defeat the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, The was the beginning of the fall of the Mongol empire, destroyed by internal divisions (just as European self defence was hindered by the same thing) and the black plague of 1349 devastated them on their trade routes. Then in 1368 the Ming Dynasty overthrew them seizing back lands. 

1260  - The Battle of Kressenbrunn: was fought in July 1260 near Groissenbrunn in Lower Austria between the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Hungary for the possession of the duchies of Austria and Styria.

 

1260? - Thomas Aquinas (Catholic)  wrote "The Rules of Just war".

1261 (?) - Constantinople.

1263 – Battle of Prinitza .

1263 – Battle of Settepozzi .

1263 or 1264 – Battle of Makryplagi .

 

1264 - Thessalonica, 

1270 - The Eighth Crusade:

 1271–1272 -  The Ninth Crusade:

1272/73 or 1274/75 – Battle of Neopatras

 

1272/73 or 1274/75 – Battle of Demetrias

1277 - Pharsalus, 

1279 – Battle of Devina

1280–81 – Siege of Berat

1291 - Siege of Acre - victory of the Mamelukes.

 

1296 1328 - First War of Scottish Independence.

 

Ottoman Empire Begins

the Turkish empire, established in northern Anatolia by Osman I at the end of the 13th century and expanded by his successors to include all of Asia Minor and much of SE Europe. After setbacks caused by the invasion of the Mongol ruler Tamerlane in 1402, Constantinople was captured in 1453. The empire reached its zenith under Suleiman in the mid 16th century; it had greatly declined by the 19th century and collapsed after the First World War.


14th century:  (1301 AD to 1400 AD) .

1302 (?) 1304 (?) – Battle of Bapheus – First Ottoman victory over the regular Byzantine army

 

1304  - Battle of Skafida – Bulgarians defeat the Byzantines

1305 - Battle of Apros -The Catalan Company defeats the Byzantines .

1309 (?) 1310 (?) - Conquest of Rhodes - Hospitaller capture Rhodes .

1317-1326 - Bursa, 

1320–26 – Siege of Prussia – The Ottomans capture the city of Prussa, which becomes their capital.

1323 - 1328 - The Peasant revolt in Flanders .

 

1326 1332 - Polish / Teutonic War 
 

1329 – Battle of Pelekanon – The Ottomans defeat the last Byzantine attempt to defend Asia Minor/

 

​​1328–31 – Siege of Nicaea – Ottomans capture the city of Nicaea.

​​1332 – Battle of Rusokastro – Bulgarians defeat the Byzantines.

​​1333–37 – Siege of Nicomedia – Fall of Nicomedia to the Ottomans.

 

1337 to 1453 - The Hundred Years War  was a series of conflicts waged from

1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.

 

​1337–1360 - the Edwardian War (1337–1360) Phase 1 of The Hundred Years War,

1341–1365 -  War of the Breton Succession .

1352 - Bosporus,

​1352 - Didymoteichon, 

1354 – Fall of Gallipoli – Capture of Gallipoli by the Ottomans, first Ottoman stronghold in Europe.

​1356–1369 - the War of the Two Peters in Aragon .

1362 - The Battle of Bluewaters .

1365 - Adrianople, 

1366 – Reconquest of Gallipoli – Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy, recovers Gallipoli for the Byzantines.

1366–1369 - The Castilian Civil War .

1366 - Gallipoli, 

1368–72 - Lithuanian–Muscovite War . the beginnings of dozens of wars and battles waged by the "Grand Duchy of Moscow" over several centuries, ending with Fifth Muscovite-Lithuanian War (1534–1537) .

1369–1389 - the Caroline War . Phase 2 of The Hundred Years War.

​1378 to 1417 -  THE WESTERN SCHISM (rival Popes).

1380 - Battle of Kulikovo Field .

1381 - The Peasants' Revolt - The Peasants' Revolt was a rebellion of peasants in England,  June 15th:  Tyler meets the king. Tyler is killed. King Richard II orders his troops to destroy the rebels, and they kill over a thousand.

1382 -  Battle of Roosebeke, the oriflamme, The French against the Flemings, because they were Urbanists and thus viewed by the French as schismatics.

THE LOLLARDS.

1382 to 1395 - Wycliffe's Bible published.

1383–85    -  The crisis in Portugal.

1356  - The Battle of Poitiers . 

​1390 – Fall of Philadelphia – Ottomans capture Philadelphia, the last Byzantine stronghold in Asia

NEW TEXT BOX

15th century:  (1401 AD to 1500 AD) ​.

The European Renaissance begins.  (15th and 16th centuries)

 

Phase 3 of The Hundred Years War.

1410 - Catholics burn at the stake  the Lollard John Badby - 

1411 – Siege of Constantinople: – Ottomans besiege Constantinople.

1415–1453 -  the Lancastrian War

1415 - Battle of Agincourt.

​1419 - 1434 - Hussite Wars, Battle of Lipany - European Wars of Religion

DOCUMENTARY link:

https://youtu.be/2ZQwkX3euFg

5 ANTI HUSSITE CRUSADES (from Pope).

1420 -  The 1st Hussite Crusade. Pope Martin V, issued a bull on 17 March 1420 - proclaiming a crusade "for the destruction of the Wycliffites, Hussites and all other heretics in Bohemia".  (Please notice the warper historical emphasis on the Hussies when many pre-Reformation Protestants were in fact also the target). The Siege of Prague. (see Battle of Vyšehrad).  the Battle of Sudoměř: (25 March 1420), Sigismund was defeated at the Battle of Vítkov Hill on July 1420.

1421The 2nd Hussite Crusade: Sigismund took possession of the town of Kutná Hora but was decisively defeated by Jan Žižka at the Battle of Deutschbrod (Německý Brod) on 6 January 1422. (Civil war in Bohemia - Jan Želivský beheaded).

1422The 3rd Hussite Crusade: Papacy calls for a new 3rd crusade against Bohemia, but it resulted in complete failure, After several military successes gained by Žižka in 1423 and the following year, a treaty of peace between the Hussite factions was concluded on 13 September 1424 at Libeň, a village near Prague, now part of that city.

1422 – Siege of Constantinople – Ottomans besiege Constantinople​

1422–30 – Siege of Thessalonica – Ottomans besiege and capture Thessalonica (after 1423 held by Venice).


1425 1454 - Wars in Lombardy. 

1426 - 1427 - The 4th Hussite Crusade: Hussite forces, led by Prokop and Sigismund Korybut, signally defeated the invaders in the Battle of Aussig. Pope Martin V, to believe that the Hussites were much weakened. Martin proclaimed yet another crusade in 1427. He appointed Cardinal Henry Beaufort of England as Papal Legate of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, to lead the crusader forces.. The crusaders were defeated at the Battle of Tachov. But after a few years, Korybut returned to Poland with his men. Korybut and his Poles, however, did not really want to leave; but the Pope threatened to call a crusade against Poland if they did not.

1427 - Echinades, 

1427 – Battle of the Echinades.

1428 – 1429 - The Siege of Orléans. 

1431 - Catholics burn Joan of Arc (then later make her a saint).

1431 - 1439 - The 5th Hussite Crusade: n 1 August 1431 a large army of crusaders under Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg, accompanied by Cardinal Cesarini as papal legate, crossed the Bohemian border. On 8 August the crusaders reached the city of Domažlice and began besieging it. On 14 August, a Hussite relief army arrived, reinforced with some 6,000 Polish Hussites and under the command of Prokop the Great, and it completely routed the crusaders at the resulting Battle of Domažlice. As the legend has it, upon seeing the Hussite banners and hearing their battle hymn, "Ktož jsú boží bojovníci" ("Ye Who are Warriors of God"), the invading Papal forces immediately took to flight.

1434 - the Battle of Lipany.  war again broke out between the Utraquists and the Taborites. On 30 May 1434, the Taborite army, led by Prokop the Great and Prokop the Lesser, who both fell in the battle, was totally defeated and almost annihilated. The Polish Hussite movement also came to an end.

1439  -  the Battle of Grotniki, -  Polish royal troops under Władysław III of Varna defeated the Hussites.  bringing the Hussite Wars to an end.

1447-1448​  - Albanian-Venetian War 

​1453 – Fall of Constantinople – Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II captures Constantinople, ending the Byzantine Empire. (some now declare Moscow the "New Rome")

The Early modern period of modern history  begins.  beginning with the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 through to about the beginning of the Age of Revolutions , and ending around the French Revolution in 1789. (The beginnings of Globalization). 

1450 - Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press.

1453 - Muslims capture Constantinople. Many Orthodox flee to Russia, some Orthodox say "Moscow is the 3d Rome" (schism in Orthodoxy? as many would deny this??) until 1917.

 

1454 -1466 - Thirteen Years' War.

1455 1485 - Wars of the Roses.

​1460 - Pope Pius II calls for a Crusade against the Ottomans, but it never materializes. It is almost as doctrinally significant calling for a Crusade that never happens as it is to call for one that does happen. A list should therefore be compiled of Crusades called for that never happened. All this goes to prove Orthodoxy and Catholicism both teach the heresy that Jesus taught war.

1461 - The Battle of Towton. War of the Roses, England. The bloodiest battle in British history.

 

​​1461 – Siege of Trebizond – Sultan Mehmed II captures Trebizond, ending the Empire of Trebizond:

1462 - The Battle of Targoviste - a night attack, fought between the armies of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II and Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia. Better known as “Vlad the Impaler” or “Dracula,” The real Vlad was a hardened veteran of the long Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.

 

1463-1718 - Ottoman–Venetian Wars :​

 

1475 - The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) was fought on 10 January 1475, between Stephen III (Catholic) of Moldavia and the Ottoman governor of Rumelia (Muslim), Hadım Suleiman Pasha. Stephen inflicted a decisive defeat on the Ottomans, described as "the greatest ever secured by the Cross (???) against Islam," with casualties, according to Venetian and Polish records, reaching beyond 40,000 on the Ottoman side.​​

 

1476/7 - Vlad the Impaler (Catholic) dies in battle.

​​​1478 - Spanish Inquisition starts (lasting 300 years!).

​1479 - the battle of Breadfield (Câmpul Pâinii 1479),

​1480 Siege of Otranto , 813 Catholic martyrs refused to convert to Islam when the city fell to an Ottoman force under Gedik Ahmed Pasha.

​1480 - Ugra River Standoff . Tatar Yoke finally broken .

​1481-1492 - Spanish "Christian" / Muslim war.

​1486 - the book  Malleus Maleficarum, "The Hammer of the Witches" is published. Catholics blame witches for bad weather.

​​1492 - Fall of Granada: Spain is regained.

1492 - the voyages of Christopher Columbus .

 

The Age of Discovery, or The Age of Exploration begins? (variously described as approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the middle of the 17th century.

1493 - Battle of Krbava .

​1496–1499 - Russo-Swedish War 

​1498 (23 May)  - Girolamo Savonarola is burnt.

 

 

16th Century:   (1501 AD to 1600 AD) .

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