The History of Killing 2
6th century: (AD 501 to AD 600) .
THE DARK AGES BEGIN.
also called Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century.
Oxford English Dictionary, quote:
1) the period in western Europe between the fall of the Roman Empire and the high Middle Ages, c.500–1100 ad, during which Germanic tribes swept through Europe and North Africa, often attacking and destroying towns and settlements. It was judged to have been a time of relative unenlightenment, though scholarship was kept alive in the monasteries and learning was encouraged at the courts of Charlemagne and Alfred the Great. It was judged to have been a time of relative unenlightenment. Essentially it is the time when heathen tribes did most of the killing instead of the pseudo Christians.
• (the dark ages) OED
humorous or derogatory - an obscure or little-regarded period in the past, especially as characterizing an outdated attitude or practice: the judge is living in the dark ages.
In the so called "dark ages" people tended to live far more in isolated small communities. This was in fact a time in which communities of Evangelical Christians could far more easily hide from persecution, and their belief of not having idols, or building church buildings, would mean little archaeological evidence would be found to prove their existence.
502-503 - Siege of Amida - The Persians captured the city of Amida.
502-508 - Anastasian War: The Greeks were involved in this.
503 - Sifrion,
526-532 - Iberian War: see Battle of Dara & Battle of Callinicum
528 – Battle of Thannuris (or Battle of Mindouos) – Sassanid Persians defeat Byzantines under Belisarius, death of Jabalah IV ibn al-Harith
530 – Battle of Dara – Belisarius defeats the Persians
531 – Battle of Callinicum – Persian general Azarethes defeats Belisarius
532 - Nika riots: Against Justinian 1st, Nearly half Constantinople burnt and tens of thousands killed.
533 - Battle of Tricamarum .
533 - Battle of Ad Decimum: – Byzantine Empire vs The Vandals. Belisarius defeats Vandals near Carthage
535 – Battle of Mammes.
535 - Battle of Bourgaon.
536 - Membresa,
536 – Siege of Naples – Byzantines capture Naples.
537 – Battle of Scalas Veteres.
537–38 – Siege of Rome (1st) – Byzantines defend Rome against the Ostrogoths.
537 - Scalas Veteres ,
540 - Antioch,
540 - Aurasium,
541–542 AD (with recurrences until 750) - Plague of Justinian - killing some estimate between 50 - 75 million.
541-562 - Lazic War :
541 – Siege of Verona – Ostrogoths under Totila repel the Byzantines.
542 – Battle of Faventia – Ostrogoths under Totila defeat the combined Byzantine armies
542 - Battle of Mucellium – Ostrogoths under Totila defeat the Byzantines
542–543 – Siege of Naples – Totila recaptures Naples
544 – Battle of Cillium – The Byzantine governor of Africa Solomon is killed by the Moors
545 - Thacia,
546 – Sack of Rome (2nd) by Totila, King of the Ostrogoths .
547 - Marta,
548 – Battle of the Fields of Cato – The new Byzantine commander, John Troglita, crushes the Moorish uprising.
551 - Petra,
551 – Battle of Sena Gallica – Byzantine fleet destroys the Ostrogothic navy.
552 – Battle of Taginae – Narses replaces Belisarius and defeats Ostrogoths under Totila.
553 – Battle of Mons Lactarius Narses defeats the Ostrogoths under Teia.
554 - Battle of the Volturnus – Narses defeats the Franks.
559 – Battle of Melantias – Belisarius defeats the Kutrigurs
555 – Siege of Phasis – Byzantine Empire defeats the Sassanid Empire
568-586 - King Liuva I declares brother Liuvigild co-king and heir, (some say oth were Arian Christians.) perhaps best proven in that Liuvigild seized Córdoba from the Byzantine Empire.? many battles in this period,
572-591 - Byzantine vs Sassanian war.
573 – Siege of Nisibis – Failed Byzantine siege of Nisibis .
573 - Siege of Dara – Sassanid Empire captures the strategic fortress of Dara .
572-591 Roman Persian War .
576 – Battle of Melitene – Byzantine Empire defeats the Sassanid Empire
578 - Altava,
580-582 - Sirmium,
580- late 7th Century - The Exarchate of Africa, a division of the Byzantine Empire centered at Carthage, Tunisia, which encompassed its possessions on the Western Mediterranean. Ruled by an exarch (viceroy) it was established by the Emperor Maurice in the late 580s and survived until the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the late 7th century.
586 – Battle of Solachon – Byzantine Empire defeats the Sassanid Empire
586 - Thessalonica,
588 – Battle of Martyropolis – Byzantine Empire defeats the Sassanid Empire
589 - Araxes,
591 – Battle of Blarathon – Byzantines defeat Bahram Chobin and help Khosrau II to recover his throne.
7th century: (AD 601 to AD 700) .
602-628 - Final Byzantine vs Sassanian war.
601 - Viminacium,
611 - Antioch,
613 – Battle of Antioch
Siege of Caesarea
Siege of Jerusalem.
615 - Thessalonica,
622 - HIJIRAH or HEGIRAH Flight of Mohammed to Mecca. (birth of Islam?)
622 - Ophlimos,
626 – Siege of Constantinople
627 – Battle of Nineveh
629 – Battle of Mu'tah
632 - The Rashidun Caliphate - the first of the four major caliphates .
634 – Battle of Ajnadayn
634 – Battle of Fahl
634 – Firaz,
634 – Dathin,
634 – Siege of Damascus
634 – Battle of Maraj-al-Debaj
635–636 – Siege of Emesa
636 – Battle of Yarmouk
637 – Siege of Jerusalem
637 – Battle of Hazir
637 – Siege of Aleppo
637 – Battle of the Iron Bridge
638 – Siege of Germanicia
640 – Battle of Heliopolis
640 - Babylon, Egypt,
641 – Siege of Alexandria
646 – Battle of Nikiou
647 – Battle of Sufetula .
650 - Arabs begin to expand and capture Byzantine territory - later taking out Antioch and Alexandria from the churches as now in Muslim hands, leaving only Rome and Constantinople to fight it out for supremacy.
651 - The Sasanian Empire falls. overthrown by the Arab Caliphate.
655 – Battle of the Masts.
655 - Phoenix,
674–678 – Siege of Constantinople (1st). In 674, the Umayyads raised a large army for the purpose of conquering the Byzantine capital. The Arabs subsequently renewed the siege each spring for the next three years, before Constantine IV decided to meet them in open battle in 678. Unbeknownst to the besiegers, Constantine had an ace up his sleeve —Greek fire.
677 - Syllaeum,
680 – Battle of Ongal
682 or 683 – Battle of Vescera
692 – Battle of Sebastopolis .
695–717 - Twenty Years' Anarchy . Justinian II (685–711) set in motion a chain of events by embarking on a despotic and increasingly violent course. His policies met with considerable opposition, eventually provoking ......
695–698 - a rebellion led by Leontios in 695, which deposed and exiled him, precipitating a prolonged period of instability and anarchy, with seven emperors in twenty-two years.
698 – Battle of Carthage
8th century: (AD 701 to AD 800) .
707–708 or 708–709 – Siege of Tyana – Umayyads besiege and capture Tyana
708 – Battle of Anchialus (708) .
711-1491 - The Reconquista of Spain, the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1491
717–718 – Siege of Constantinople – Second and last siege of Constantinople by the Arabs.
718 - (722? date not clear) - The Battle of Covadonga - Pelagius or Pelayo chose a narrow valley and placed archers atop the ridges, while hiding most of his men in a cave. Some say this was in 1718 and was the true beginning of the Reconquista of Spain.
721 - The Battle of Toulouse . Odo of Aquitaine
727 – Siege of Nicaea – Unsuccessful siege of Nicaea by the Arabs
726 - "First Iconoclasm", 726 and 787- up until Empress Irene (really 2 iconoclasms)
According to the traditional view, Byzantine Iconoclasm was started by a ban on religious images by Emperor Leo III and continued under his successors. It was accompanied by widespread destruction of images and persecution of supporters of the veneration of images. (787 - Council of Nicaea II, demand the end of iconoclasm?) .
726 - The trigger for Byzantine Emperor Leo III’s prohibition may have even been the huge volcanic eruption in 726 in the Aegean Sea interpreted as a sign of God’s anger over the veneration of icons. This helped split the Bishop of Rome away from Byzantines.
732 - The battle of Tours -
By A.D. 732, the Umayyad Caliphate was led by Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, who reigned over the the fifth largest empire ever to exist. The total force for the invasion may have numbered 80,000, although probably only around 10,000–30,000 were involved at Tours. The Franks were led by Charles Martel, Latin for “the Hammer.” He was able to muster an army of 15,000–20,000.
740 – Battle of Akroinon – Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian destroys an Arab invasion force.
743 - Sardis,
746 – Battle of Keramaia
751 - Papal States founded - Lombards capture Ravenna from the Empire (the last Eastern Empire holding in the North of Italy) threatening to attack Rome, So the Italians asked the Franks in France and Germany for help not the Byzantines, and Pepin III the Short (the Carolingians) who helped expel the Lombards, then giving the strip of land from Ravenna to Rome that belonged to the Byzantines to the Papacy, laying the foundation of the Papal states.
see youtube video....
756 – Battle of Marcellae (1st)
759 – Battle of the Rishki Pass
763 – Battle of Anchialus
766 – Siege of Kamacha – Unsuccessful Abbasid siege of the fort of Kamacha.
771-804 - The Saxon Wars.
A series of campaigns waged over nearly 30 years and 18 major battles. These wars concluded with Saxony incorporated into the Frankish Empire, and the pagan Saxons forced by Charlemagne to accept sacerdotalist pseudo Christianity.
Charlemagne (also called Charles the Great or Charles I) was supposedly "Christian" but prior to being crowned Emperor was involved in much war. Hardly the pacifism claimed to be Orthodox.
774 – Battle of Berzitia
778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass
782 – Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor – Harun al-Rashid leads his troops as far as Chrysopolis
782 - Nicomedia,
788 – Battle of Kopidnadon – Byzantines defeated by Abbasid invasion
792 – Battle of Marcellae (2nd)
797 - Empress Irene has her own son's eyes gouged out, and snatches full power as Empress for herself in Eastern Rome, destroying co-rulership. (ending iconoclasm???). She did not realise that by snatching power for herself alone, a woman, without a make co-ruler, this would give the Pope the excuse to create a second Northern Empire. But Empress Irene was prevented from war with the Pope by troubles with the Bulgars and Arabs.
9th century: (AD 801 to AD 900) .
800 - On Christmas Day Charlemagne was crowned emperor (of a new western Holy Roman Empire - as the Pope said a female Empress Irene was no true ruler) by the pope. His coronation legitimized Charlemagne's rule over the former Roman empire in W Europe and finalized the split between the Byzantine and Roman Empires. After years of negotiation and war, Charlemagne received recognition from the Byzantine emperor Michael I in 812.
802 - Empress Irene deposed. But two Roman Emperors now still existed.
804 – Battle of Krasos – Abbasid army defeats emperor Nikephoros I
806 – Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor – Harun al-Rashid invades Asia Minor and sacks Heraclea.
809 - Sedica,
811 – Battle of Pliska – Emperor Nikephoros I is defeated by Bulgarian army
813 - Versinikia,
813 - Adrianople,
814 and 842 - "The Second Iconoclasm"
824 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass .
827–828 – Siege of Syracuse – Unsuccessful siege of Syracuse by the Aghlabids
827-828 - Crete,
829 – Battle of Thasos – Byzantine fleet is defeated by Emirate of Crete.
830-831 - Palermo,
830's - Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus' versus Byzantine Empire
838 - Dazimon,
Battle of Anzen – Emperor Theophilos is defeated by the Abbasids under Afshin.
Sack of Amorium – Abbasids under Caliph al-Mu'tasim besiege and sack the city of Amorium .
841-843 - Frankish civil war (Charles the Bald vs Lothair vs Louis the German),
843 - Messina,
844 – Battle of Mauropotamos – Abbasid army defeats the Byzantines under Theoktistos
845 - Siege of Paris
853 – Sack of Damietta – Byzantine fleet raids and captures the port of Damietta in Egypt.
859 - Castrogiovanni,
860 - Rus'–Byzantine War (Seige of Constantinople)
862 – Capture of Faruriyyah – Abbasids capture the border fortress of Farurriyah
863 – Battle of Lalakaon – Byzantine army under Petronas annihilates the army of Malatya and kills its emir, Umar al-Aqta .
863 - Cyril and Methodius convert the Danubian Slavs to the sacradotalist heresy,
863 - Poson,
868 – Siege of Ragusa – Byzantine fleet under Niketas Ooryphas relieves Ragusa and restores Byzantine control over Dalmatia .
871 - Battle of Ashdown: (Alfred the Great - Vikings: Great Heathen Army)
872 somewhere to 900? - Battle of Hafrsfjord - Viking chief Harald Fairhair proclaimed himself the first king of the Norwegians .
872 or 878 – Battle of Bathys Ryax – The Byzantines defeat the Paulicians and kill their leader, Chrysocheir .
872 or 873 – Battle of Kardia – Byzantine fleet under Niketas Ooryphas defeats the Cretan Saracens under the renegade Photios .
873 or 879 – Battle of the Gulf of Corinth – Byzantine fleet under Niketas Ooryphas defeats the Cretan Saracens under the renegade Photios.
876? 878? - Battle of Edington (the Battle of Ethandun) - In England an army of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex under Alfred the Great defeated the Great Heathen Army led by Guthrum on a date between 6 and 12 May AD 878, resulting in the Treaty of Wedmore later the same year. Thirteen years earlier, a Viking force known as the Great Heathen Army had landed in Northern England, quickly conquering most of the country. Wessex was the last major holdout.
note: in the long murky pre-schism time period between the Romans leaving Britain, the Norse invaders choosing to stay and conquer Britain, and their repulsion, the Catholics and Orthodox both insist that the universally practiced Faith was their own (when both contradict each other dramatically). The reality was probably great diversity of beliefs, and this shows just how both sides "bend" history to mean whatever they want to.
877–878 – Siege of Syracuse – Fall of Syracuse to the Aghlabids.
Battle of Cephalonia – Nasar defeats an Aghlabid fleet raiding western Greece in a night battle
Battle of Stelai – Nasar defeats an Aghlabid fleet off Calabria .
885 - The Siege of Paris - the Franks ended up paying the Vikings a fortune in silver to stay away.
883 (after) : Siege of Euripos
888 – Battle of Milazzo - Aghlabids defeat Byzantines
896 – Battle of Boulgarophygon – Bulgarian Army defeats Byzantines under Leo Katakalon .
10th century: (AD 901 to AD 1000) .
902 – Siege of Taormina – The former Aghlabid emir, Ibrahim II, captures the fortress of Taormina
904 Sack of Thessalonica .
907 - Rus'–Byzantine War .
911 - Treaty of Saint-Clair-Sur-Epte (Appeasing Norman Raiders).
912 - 928 - Spanish "Christian" / Muslim war
915 Battle of Garigliano .
Battle of Achelous
Battle of Katasyrtai .
922 – Battle of Pegae .
937 - The Battle of Brunanburh: fought between Æthelstan, King of England, and an alliance of Olaf Guthfrithson, King of Dublin; Constantine, King of Alba and Owen, King of Strathclyde. This battle was very significant in that it created a political map of the future that remains [in modernity].
941 – Rus' raid against Constantinople and Bithynia or Rus'–Byzantine War (941)
944-945 - Rus'–Byzantine War .
953 – Battle of Marash
955 - The Battle of Lechfeld was a decisive victory for Otto I the Great, King of East Francia, over the Hungarian harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél (Lehel) and Súr. It is often seen as the defining event in the repulsion of the Hungarians' incursions into Western Europe.
955 (October) - The Battle of Recknitz.
958 – Battle of Raban
960 – Battle of Andrassos .
960-961 - Crete,
962 – Siege of Taormina – The Fatimids capture the fortress of Taormina
962 - Aleppo,
964 - Rometta,
965 - Tarsus,
965 – Battle of the Straits – The Fatimids destroy a Byzantine invasion fleet under Niketas Abalantes.
967/968–971 - Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria, Kievan Rus' versus Byzantine Empire.
969 - Antioch,
969 - Aleppo,
970 – Battle of Arcadiopolis
970–971 – Siege of Dorostolon
971 – Battle of Alexandretta
971 - Siege of Dorostolon,
973 - Amida,
977-997 - Spanish Cristian / Muslim War
978 - Pancalia,
979 - Aquae Saravenae,
986 – Battle of the Gates of Trajan.
987 Rus'–Byzantine War
988 - The Varangian Guard was first formally constituted under Emperor Basil II in
988 - Vladimir the Great of Russia "converts" from paganism (he had about 1,000 wives and concubines) to the pre-schism form of Byzantine Christianity, but as his motive was to seek closer ties to the Byzantine Empire his very "conversion" is questionable in its sincerity. He starts his so called Christianity by taking yet another wife to consolidate ties with the Byzantine Empire.
960-961 - Abydos .
994 – Battle of the Orontes .
995 – Battle of Thessalonica .
997 – Battle of Spercheios .
998 – Battle of Apamea .
11th century: (1001 AD to 1100 AD) .